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IAAS | Institute | Alumni | Schleicher
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Dr. rer. nat. Daniel Schleicher

Former Research Associate

Research Interest

CAPE: Compliance Aware Process-design Environment

Welcome to the CAPE project

The aim of this project is to build a compliance aware business process environment that supports process designers in building compliant business processes. Compliance of business processes has gained importance during the last years. The growing number of internal and external regulations that companies need to obey has led to this state. For these reasons it is necessary to come up with solutions to keep the complexity of business process design for the human process designer as low as possible. This is even more important regarding the growing complexity of todays business processes. When building compliant business processes the human process designer should not have to bother with a number of rules that the eventual process should stick to but concentrate on the actual business funcutionality to be implemented.


A prototype has been built to show the verification mechanisms I developed. The prototype is based on the web based BPMN editor Oryx (

With this prototype a developer creating a BPMN 2.0 process is supported in designing a compliant business process by certain verification mechanisms. In the following some usage scenarios are described to show the functionality implemented by the prototype. Please open the prototype by clicking the following link (opens in new window). (There are problems with the Google Chrome browser. Please use any other browser)

Control-Flow Compliance Rule Verification

  1. Double click on process model named "andSample" to open it in the editor
  2. Click on the white rectangle and then on the balance symbol in the menu bar above. The button is marked with a red circle in the following image.
  3. Click on "Compliance Wizard". A new window opens showing the compliance rules which have been created before and added to the process model. These compliance rules say that Task3 and Task2 must be executed every time the process is executed.
  4. Click on "Check compliance" In the same menu to run the compliance checker. The rectangle named compliance is marked green, saying that the compliance rules of this compliance scope are not violated.
  5. To provoke a violation of the compliance rules, remove Task2 from the process model. Check the compliance again. Now, the compliance scope is marked red.

Data-Flow Compliance Rule Verification

  1. Double click on process model named "dataAwareness" to open it in the editor
  2. Click on the white rectangle and then on the balance symbol in the menu bar above. The button is marked with a red circle in the following image.
  3. To check the data-compliance select "Check compliance". The compliance scope is marked red because a compliance rule has been violated. In the next steps we will remove that compliance issue from the process model.
  4. To do this, click on "Compliance Wizard" in the same pulldown menue described above. A new window opens showing the compliance rules which have been created before and added to the process model. There is one data-aware compliance rule attached to this compliance scope. This compliance rule is defined using Xpath. The concepts behind this are explained in an upcoming paper.
  5. Mark the compliance rule named "DATATRANSFER" by clicking on it once and click on edit. The next window shows the configuration options for this compliance rule. The Xpath expression for the compliance rule is defined in the input field labeled "Path". Copy this Xpath expression. We need it later. This compliance rule says that only tags with name "from" can be copied from the task into the data-object of the process model. This is achieved through the Xpath expression selecting only tags with name "from" and by selecting "Only those" in the Restriction part of the compliance rule.
  6. To remove the compliance violation close the window by pressing cancel.
  7. Mark the data-association in the process model (the dashed arrow from the task to the data-object)
  8. Click on the value part of the assignments property in the right sidebar of oryx. This changes the value part to an empty input field containing a grey box.
  9. Click on the grey box to open the assignment editor.
  10. Paste the previously copied Xpath expression to the to-property (replace the contents with the Xpath expression of the clipboard) of the data-association and click ok.
  11. Check compliance once again. Now, the process model is compliant, because the data-association only copies allowed values to the data-object.


  • MASTER EU Project (Coordinator) – Managing Assurance, Security and Trust for sERvices
  • Publications

    Journal Papers

    1. Rodríguez, Carlos; Schleicher, Daniel; Daniel, Florian; Casati, Fabio; Leymann, Frank; Wagner, Sebastian: SOA-enabled compliance management: instrumenting, assessing, and analyzing service-based business processes. In: Springer (Hrsg): Service Oriented Computing and Applications, Springer, 2013 ( pdf).
    2. Retter, Ralph; Fehling, Christoph; Karastoyanova, Dimka; Leymann, Frank; Schleicher, Daniel: Combining Horizontal and Vertical Composition of Services. In: Service Oriented Computing and Applications, Springer, 2012.

    Conference Papers

    1. Nowak, Alexander; Binz, Tobias; Leymann, Frank; Schleicher, Daniel; Schumm, David; Wagner, Sebastian: Ein Konzept zur Identifikation ökologisch nachhaltiger Verbesserungspotentiale unter Bürgerbeteiligung. In: Tagungsband der Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik 2012.
    2. Schleicher, Daniel; Leymann, Frank; Schneider, Patrick; Schumm, David; Wolf, Tamara: An Approach to Combine Data-Related and Control-Flow-Related Compliance Rules. In: Proceedings of SOCA, 2011 ( pdf).
    3. Nowak, Alexander; Leymann, Frank; Schleicher, Daniel; Schumm, David; Wagner, Sebastian: Green Business Process Patterns. In: Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs, PLoP 2011 ( pdf).
    4. Schleicher, Daniel; Niemöller, Jörg; Leymann, Frank; Vandikas, Konstantinos; Levenshteyn, Roman: Towards a Service Composition Language for Heterogeneous Service Environments. In: Proceedings of the ICIN Conference 2011.
    5. Schleicher, Daniel; Fehling, Christoph; Grohe, Stefan; Leymann, Frank; Nowak, Alexander; Schneider, Patrick; Schumm, David: Compliance Domains: A Means to Model Data-Restrictions in Cloud Environments. In: Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), 2011 ( pdf).
    6. Kötter, Falko; Weidmann, Monika; Schleicher, Daniel: Guaranteeing Soundness of adaptive Business Processes using ABIS. In: Abramowicz, Witold (Hrsg); Tolksdorf, Robert (Hrsg): 14th International Conference, BIS 2011, Poznan, Poland, June 15-17, 2011, Proceedings.
    7. Weidmann, Monika; Kötter, Falko; Kintz, Maximilien; Schleicher, Daniel; Mietzner, Ralph; Leymann, Frank: Adaptive Business Process Modeling in the Internet of Services (ABIS). In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (ICIW) 2011 (Hrsg): Adaptive Business Process Modeling in the Internet of Services (ABIS).
    8. Schleicher, Daniel; Weidmann, Monika; Leymann, Frank; Schumm, David: Compliance Scopes: Extending the BPMN 2.0 Meta Model to Specify Compliance Requirements. In: Proceedings of SOCA 2010 ( pdf).
    9. Gheorghe, Gabriela; Crispo, Bruno; Schleicher, Daniel; Anstett, Tobias; Leymann, Frank; Mietzner, Ralph; Monakova, Ganna: Combining Enforcement Strategies in Service Oriented Architectures. In: accepted for publication in ICSOC 2010 proceedings.
    10. Eberle, Hanna; Leymann, Frank; Schleicher, Daniel; Schumm, David; Unger, Tobias: Process Fragment Composition Operations. In: Proceedings of APSCC 2010.
    11. Schleicher, Daniel; Anstett, Tobias; Leymann, Frank; Schumm, David: Compliant Business Process Design Using Refinement Layers. In: R. Meersman, T. Dillon et al. (Hrsg): OTM 2010 Conferences ( pdf).
    12. Schumm, David; Anstett, Tobias; Leymann, Frank; Schleicher, Daniel; Strauch, Steve: Essential Aspects of Compliance Management with Focus on Business Process Automation. In: Abramowicz, Witold (Hrsg); Alt, Rainer (Hrsg); Fähnrich, Klaus-Peter (Hrsg); Franczyk, Bogdan (Hrsg); Maciaszek, Leszek A. (Hrsg): INFORMATIK 2010: Business Process and Service Science Proceedings of ISSS and BPSC ( pdf).
    13. Anstett, Tobias; Karastoyanova, Dimka; Leymann, Frank; Mietzner, Ralph; Monakova, Ganna; Schleicher, Daniel; Strauch, Steve: MC-Cube: Mastering Customizable Compliance in the Cloud. In: Springer (Hrsg): Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Service Oriented Computing, Stockholm, Sweden, November 23-27, 2009 ( pdf).
    14. Schleicher, Daniel; Anstett, Tobias; Leymann, Frank; Mietzner, Ralph: Maintaining Compliance in Customizable Process Models. In: Meersman, Robert (Hrsg); Dillon, Tharam (Hrsg); Herrero, Pilar (Hrsg): Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on COOPERATIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CoopIS 2009) ( pdf).
    15. van Lessen, Tammo; Leymann, Frank; Mietzner, Ralph; Nitzsche, Jörg; Schleicher, Daniel: A Management Framework for WS-BPEL. In: Proceedings of the 6th IEEE European Conference on Web Services 2008.

    Workshop Papers

    1. Weidmann, Monika; Koetter, Falko; Renner, Thomas; Schumm, David; Leymann, Frank; Schleicher, Daniel: Synchronization of Adaptive Process Models Using Levels of Abstraction. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Evolutionary Business Processes (EVL-BP 2011) ( pdf).
    2. Schumm, David; Anstett, Tobias; Leymann, Frank; Schleicher, Daniel: Applicability of Process Viewing Patterns in Business Process Management. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Models and Model-driven Methods for Service Engineering (3M4SE 2010), in conjunction with the 14th IEEE International EDOC Conference (EDOC 2010) ( pdf).

    Other Publications

    1. Schleicher, Daniel: Service-orientiertes Provisioning für Software as a Service, Diplomarbeit Nr. 2640, 2008.
    1. Gerlach, Daniel; Güven, Nilgün; Schleicher, Daniel: Vergleich von Provisioning-Tools, Fachstudie Softwaretechnik Nr. 73, 2007.

    Supervised Student Works

    1. Chughtai, Muhammad Bilal: Concept and Implementation of Digital Beacons, Masterarbeit Nr. 2015.
    2. Grohe, Stefan: Visualisierung und Implementierung von compliance Scopes, Diplomarbeit Nr. 3112, 2011.
    3. Heinz, Robert: Modelliierung regelkonformer Prozesse mit Compliance Scopes, Diplomarbeit Nr. 3111, 2011.
    4. Kötter, Falko: Prozessvarianten in unternehmensübergreifenden Servicenetzwerken, Diplomarbeit Nr. 3046, 2010.
    5. Dengel, Bernd-Simon: Modellierung von regeltreuen Geschäftsprozessen anhand von Compliance Templates, Diplomarbeit Nr. 2977, 2010.
    6. Zeng, Zhen: Anwendungsspezifische Prozessvisualisierung, Diplomarbeit Nr. 2967, 2010.
    7. H. Romuald Pascal Awessou: Eine Event-Description- und Subscription-Sprache für Webservices, Diplomarbeit Nr. 2949, 2009.
    8. Mattanja Kern: Enforcement auf laufenden BPEL-Prozessen, Diplomarbeit Nr. 2898, 2009.